An overview of self-related superiority biases in social comparison is presented. Included are false consensus, false uniqueness, pluralistic ignorance, illusory superiority, unrealistic optimism, the sensitive and multifaceted self, the “Barnum” effect and the self-other asymmetry. Important conceptual and theoretical problems characterizing the field are pointed out and a review of cognitive explanations is presented. It is argued that most superiority biases are closely related to each other and that the self-enhancement motive or the pervasive tendency to see oneself in a favourable light offers a more fruitful approach towards their integration than the cognitive point of view. Some theoretical and heuristic implications of the proposed integration are briefly outlined.
Hoorens, V. (1993). Self-enhancement and superiority biases in social comparison. European review of social psychology, 4(1), 113-139.